Educational Seminar on the Taoism and Taoist Folk Culture
Filport Hotel, Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, China
Inheritance and Innovation
Taking Zhang Peicheng 's Preaching Experience as an Example
In addition to the five major religions identified by the Chinese government today, there are still a large number of folk religions and folk beliefs whose social functions may be no less than those of the five major religions. Their existence is a historical fact. Twists and turns, such as the trend of religious pluralism in the past, the power of diversion is better than the power of prohibition. Therefore, a positive view on the folk religions and folk beliefs can longer be avoided by the academic and the governmental party.
This article is to discuss I-Kuan Tao, one of Taiwan’s legitimate religions, on how it was once a long term ban in Taiwan, and the legalization of I-Kuan Tao and recognition as the legitimate religion by the Taiwan governmental. In particular, we use examples of our old predecessor, Mr. Zhang Pei Cheng, to provide an introduction of I-Kuan Tao’s inheritance and innovation.
In late September, 2013, Qiu Yonghui, Director of the Contemporary Religious Research Office of the Institute of World Religions of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, held a symposium on Chinese Folk Religion and Culture at the ancient Juming Temple in Nanjing.
According to the 2012 Pew Research Center, more than four-fifths of the world's religions were populated in 2010, including 2.2 billion Christians (32% of the world's population), 16 Billion Muslims (23%), 1 billion Hindus (15%), nearly 500 million Buddhists (7%, of which 50% of them in mainland China) and 14 million Jews (0.2%). More than 400 million people (6%, of which 73% are in mainland China) are members of various civil or traditional religions.
Per Qiu Yonghui's(邱永輝) statistics, there are about 290 million people in mainland China who believe in folk or civil religions. This is greater than 250 million Buddhists in mainland China. In addition, the 290 million people who believe in folk religions in China would be far more than the 14 million Jews as the world’s fifth largest religion. Not only can the folk religion be considered as the world’s fifth-largest religion, the folk religion can even be considered as the largest religion in mainland China. As Qiu Yonghui’s special reference to folk religion as the largest religion in mainland China, folk religion research should be considered as an important part of Chinese religious studies.
In addition, as the vice president of the Institute of World Religions of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Kim Ze Fu, said in his article entitled "The Position and Role of Folk Religions during the Transitional Period": "These are the values of Kings and traditional Chinese values. The worship form has played an important role in the field of social enlightenment, the maintenance of social networks and the arrangement of social order in China's civil society.”
As Professor Lai Yong Hai of the Chinese Culture Research Institute of Nanjing University said, “ I always think Religion has a very positive historical role and social function. In modern times, we should conscientiously explore and promote the "positive energy" of religion so that religion can better serve our society.”
Now we know the world's major religions, in fact, they just rise of the era, perhaps two thousand years ago, perhaps a thousand years ago, is the then folk religion or new religion, through the millennium, Continued development, and constantly explore the religious energy is to adapt to the needs of each era, and become the world's major religions. Therefore, we can not underestimate the present is considered a folk religion or the development of new religions or the status quo, or after a hundred years of steady development, as new and new development of the social needs of positive energy, perhaps at that time the world Religion will have a more fresh face
This is also the introduction of Professor Li Shuiyu in the end of 1948, "Now the secret religion in North China," the introduction of the book three hopes, which is to "find and resist the eradication of private secrets religious approach" 3, but after 60 years of reflection In July 2006, Li Shui-yu re-adjusted his view of the book, saying that "even if China becomes a big country in science and technology, there will be no non-governmental religion," he said.
In his introduction to the article, "The Spread and Influence of Consistency in Taiwan" by Secretary-General Yang Liuchang, he said that "the unique Chinese characteristics have had a significant impact in the past history and are still widespread in Taiwan and overseas today The traditional folk religion should be regarded as one of the key directions of the study of folk religion in China, and to strengthen its follow-up study, to fill the gap in this area, both religious and social significance.
We understand that the ruling authorities of the past are mostly wary of folk religions, but by the evolution of the times, the growing development of the political, economic and social environment, the more humane respect for humanity, the development of folk religions can also be sustainable development of positive energy , Such as the development of folk religions in Taiwan for centuries, according to Professor Wang Zhiyu's research. From the nature of folk sects, is to see its commonality.
First of all, the folk sect emphasizes the orthodoxy of China since ancient times. Such a system has been established by Fu Xi, Xuanyuan, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, Wu and Zhou Gong since the ancient times. Share.
This concept of Taoism needs to be realized through the reconciliation of individual body and mind and the practice of morality. Moreover, the folk sects absorbed Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism and other traditional ideas of the old social virtues of the civil society to make a combination, through the internal organs, such as religious language, so that believers can practice moral law, and through Confucian orthodoxy and other concepts within the sage echoed to strengthen the orthodoxy of such religious language.
On the other hand, in addition to the internal strength of the focus, good deeds of exogenous practice, is also the focus of its practice is based on almost all non-religious sects to avoid social relief activities. The folk sects tried to legalize their activities by registering or registering with the official, which is a feature of the folk religious activities since the Republic of China.
The essence of the coherence is indeed the first two of Wang Zhiyu's remarks. As for the third item, the mode of thinking expressed in the 1937 period is not necessarily linked to the government, nor is there any practical action for legal registration. , Which may be less than the relationship between the pro-volume, or since the Ming and Qing Dynasties strong suppression of the government, or that the Road is a consistent channel is a congenital to the human mind caused by registration.
However, until 1947, the pro-China line had been spread all over China. When the government was proclaimed a dissolution by the government, Zhang Tianrong did not follow the "question and answer" principle: "It is not allowed to intervene, Pause does not pass, what is fear of the so-called "co-rule is left, not to go." Kong Shengyun said: "Road will be the line, life will be almost! Road will waste,
But the use of a variety of connections to the government to apply for the establishment of the China Charity and Ethics Association as the basis for legal evangelism, of course, not three years after the liberation of the Communist Party of China all the people of China are subject to strict prohibitions, a road is no exception, Because of the large number, so the suffering is also the greatest.
And when the two sides of the Taiwan Strait after the isolation, the Chinese Communist Party in the ruling Communist Party of China in the New China, subject to strict prohibitions, or even pay a serious price, it is difficult to re-evangelism; and the incoming to Taiwan's long-term suppression by the ruling Kuomintang, even if the communication is not effective , So that the 1937 mode of co-ordination mode of thinking has gradually accumulated, part of the line is also a standard line field, not actively involved in communication with the Taiwan government affairs. Fortunately, Zhang Peicheng and others insisted on the completion of the legalization of Taiwan's cohesive channels, and even the establishment of the General Administration of Customs in various countries.
Second, the political and religious relations before the lifting of Taiwan
The 2012 Annual Symposium on "Taiwan's Religious Development in the Context of Globalization" was held at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences at the National Taiwan University. After the opening address, the first speech was chaired by researcher Qu Haiyuan from the Academia Sinica. Introduction The program has been examined and approved by the National Science Council of China as a model for the development of Taiwan's religions under globalization. Qu Haoyuan is responsible for "the government's religious policies and social and political changes." His introductory remarks are simple and clear. There were only two kinds of religion: one was religion in the daytime, the other in the daytime religion was the lawful religion recognized by the government, the religion in the evening was an illegal religious religion that the government did not recognize or even banned. Bullying the night religion. At that time, the same way is described by Qu Haiyuan, Xie Yan is one of the pre-night religion.
The administration of Taiwan's religion, in the period of martial law, is still like a model of an authoritarian era. It will only recognize a small number of religions that can be controlled. The government is not ready to liberalize people's association, so the next administrative order will ban religious development. , Even if the executive order does not comply with the law or the Constitution, but in the period of martial law is still very effective. It is also stated by Qu Haiyuan: "The Government has claimed that it has strictly abolished the" cult "of the coffers, but the believers have not really been punished by the law ... Mainly in the absence of the law, in the document of the garrison headquarters, This procedure is only an administrative order and is subject to non-prosecution. "... In the course of the judicial process, the Court did not have a guilty plea of coercion, which was explicitly proclaimed by the garrison headquarters and the Ministry of Interior to be an heretical ban, mainly under the pretext of safeguarding national security and Social atmosphere, shows the authoritarian regime on the rapid development of new religious depth of doubt.
In order to eliminate the concerns of the Government, a thorough way to spend more than 30 years of work. In the meantime, in addition to long-term communication with government departments, but also with other legitimate religious cooperation and exchange. At that time, the same old predecessors, such as Zhang Peicheng also know that the Government is not prepared to open the religious control, and only the formation of good-natured, force the plot gradually. Kanazawa, deputy director of the Institute of World Religions of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said in an interview with Phoenix Weekly that he believes that the issue of religious openness in modern China is not a question of religious management but rather a question of " This is not a problem with your religion, just like the news industry, even if you have money, you do not want to run a newspaper can do.
During the period of martial law, the Taiwan government was not prepared to open its religion, and the activities of the Taiwan government were severely restricted. Although, as Qu Hai-yuen said, "the believers are not genuinely sanctioned by law," they are subject to long-term political pressure, and the dojo leader is at any time ready to be imprisoned, , But directly in violation of government administrative order to be detained, even if you are doing is a good long-term to suffer such a non-white injustice, some detained for several days, several months, the most serious is probably Baoguang Yushan Daochang Wang Shou's predecessors for the construction of Yushan Baoguang Temples include the Nine Dragons Wall and "The Beginning of Yushan Wang Daoxing"
May be the political interpretation of the government to step on the political taboo in Taiwan, Wang Shou from December 5, 1976 by the Taiwan government to "parroting the throne" rebellion to arrest, after 10 months in custody, Taiwan Security Headquarters was still on October 20, 1977 ruling sent to the Taiwan Institute of Education experimental education for three years, it is paradoxical, Wang Shou before the incident, but long-term support for the ruling KMT candidate, especially Xiao Tianzan legislator Long-term support and cultivation by Wang Shou, but when the end of 1976 the Taiwan government authorities decided to detain Wang Shou, Wang Shou long-term support of the then ruling Kuomintang did not bring him immediate disaster relief effect.
In addition, in the martial law period of more than 30 years, also participated in the Taoist churches of the Republic of China in the organization and operation, the main representative is the basis of loyalty to the temple leader Zhang Peicheng old and later also participate in the Baoguang Yushan temple leader Wang Shou, Zhang Peicheng But also from the beginning of the fourth term of the Republic of China Taoist executive director of the post, has three times acting director, and Wang Shou later served as executive director of the Republic of China Taoism, Taoism for the development of the Republic of China long-term money to contribute , But good luck there are different. Because of the many different interpretations of the state system, Wang Shou was detained for a long time until he was released from prison at the end of 1980 because he was interpreted as a matter of national security. On January 17, 2004, Wang Shou was awarded the honorary certificate, For (93) re-Yu No. 2030, and in accordance with the provisions of the Civil Compensation Act, the Government of the Republic of China compensation for the loss of Wang
As has been the case for many years has been consistent with the Chinese mainland for a wide range of diverse exchanges, but not necessarily ensure that such exchanges is equal to the Chinese mainland to recognize the lawful way. For example, in 2010, the World Religions of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences held a grand symposium on the development trend of new religions in Beijing. The conference also invited the representatives of the Taiwan Consulate General to publish a paper on the development of the coherence. The conference also received the award from the State Affairs Bureau of Religious Affairs, Offices, the State Council Development Research Center, and the National Anti-cult Department. But this does not mean acknowledging the legitimacy of coherence on the mainland. As Kanazawa said, "Academic exchanges do not amount to political recognition. It does not mean that there must be one. If the tenth session of the meeting is to legalize a religion, I am afraid it is not." But " enhancement"
Consistency both Confucianism-based, convinced that those who are more enlightened. That is, if Xiao Tianzan was deeply supported by Wang Shou, 12 Xiaodian Zen said that he had first participated in the campaign of increasing the number of legislators at the end of 1972, and that the election office was located in Tainan's residence in Wangshou. All the assistants publicized the vehicles, Business arrangements by Wang Shou, and even re-elected 14 years are true. However, according to Xiao Tianzan's memoirs, on April 16, 1980, the director of the Kuomintang Social Workers' Association reported to the Central Committee of the Kuomintang that "the current labor and religious focus of the peasants and fishermen is not the only one Work "was about to back before the seat, Chairman Chiang asked: Xiao Zhuren now coherent Road how? I stand on the spot to answer: Consistency Road is now a conservative estimate of about 50 million people, as long as the coherent channel to listen to their sermons, it becomes polite, pious, and orderly, usually diligent in the cause, if the money, then For the public good, for the dedication Road, every election will fully support the party candidates, and its ban and invalid, it is better to be included in counseling.
It is said that the Kuomintang Standing Committee also attended the meeting expressed objection, but President Chiang Ching-kuo has been interested in the direction of lifting the same direction. Among them, a group of track and field field leadership of the predecessors on behalf of the previous generation of perseverance to continue to communicate, and finally thanks to Dr. Chen Shui Feng's selfless participation in the introduction, one by one to lead a former generation to visit the party and government departments to communicate, and in 1987 January 9 XiaoRuiZheng legislators asked 40 legislators in the legislature to urgently question the Executive Yuan YuGuoHua, asked the government to allow consistent channel, legal evangelism. Soon, February 11, 1987 the Executive Yuan formally agreed to lift the ban on the cobbled together, the party and government decision-making authority and appointed by the then Minister of the Interior Minister Wu Boxiong announced the lifting of the ban on the road, from the government announced the martial law is also nearly six months.
It is certainly true that the development of Taiwan's religious development is one of the miracles of the development of Taiwan's religion. Of course, the development of a consistent road in Taiwan can also be a reflection of Taiwan's move towards democratization and pluralism. Write down a page of epic. 15 We also understand that during the period of martial law in Taiwan, the official interpretation of folk religion was still politicized, and there was political ambition and political conspiracy in folk religions, such as Wang Shou. Only after Taiwan's ruling authorities can understand the religious habitual change from the politicization, that is, the change of the religious view of the government. After the lifting of the ban, there is no rebellion in Taiwan. This may be related to the depoliticized religious view. 16 In fact, the nature of religion is in pursuit of a metaphysical path. The lifting of the ban does not lead to rebellion. The prohibition does not lead to rebellion, but only the prohibition or the lifting of the prohibition can reveal the vision and apparatus of the state and the government.
From here we can understand that the Government is also composed of people, the Government should learn to grow, let the step to witness the truth, will create the world to respect the trust of the state apparatus.
It was in 1943 when Zhang Peicheng initiated Tao. At that time, I-Kuan Tao had propagated throughout mainland China. Despite risking his life in the wartime, Zhang Peicheng continued to Tao preaching diligently. He deeply understood the importance of communication and collaboration. After arriving Taiwan, Zhang Peicheng struggled with disconnected communication and separation from families who remained across the strait. On top of that, I-Kuan Tao was constantly suppressed by the Taiwanese government at that time. Sustaining the duty of preaching and developing a promising future for I-Kuan Tao had become a heavy burden for Zhang Peicheng and other first-generation predecessors who came to Taiwan with the mission to preach Tao. Zhang Peicheng wasn’t the first one to receive Tao or became Tao Transmitting Master among the first-generation Tao predecessors; however, his well-rounded communication skill earned trust from Sun Hui-Ming and broad support from other Tao Predecessors. As a result, he was appointed as liaison. In addition to manage his own Tao lineage association, Zhang Peicheng also assisted and protected the safety of other lineage associations.
To gain acknowledgment from society, Zhang Peicheng joined the establishment and operation of Taoism Association of the Republic of China (ROC) during 1966 to 1983. He dedicated wholeheartedly in assisting the operation Taoism Association of the ROC to assure its success. Although the establishment of I-Kuan Tao was not directly related with the 17-year of experience he had, Zhang Peicheng managed to utilize his title indirectly to create a communication channel with the government and other organizations. For example, although the Republic of China I-Kuan Tao Association has been established since 1988, the government in mainland China refused to interact with I-Kuan Tao related organization. For that reason, Zhang Peicheng had used Jichu Moral Association to invite mainland China scholars to visit each I-Kuan Tao temples and Tao centers in Taiwan. In addition, he made monetary contribution either personally or through the Red Cross after several major disasters. These efforts enhance communication and help build relationship. It doesn’t stop the communication just because I-Kuan Tao wasn’t recognized. The effort was to create possibilities to enhance understanding from the world.
Tao propagation was successful when it first arrived Taiwan from China at the end of 1945. The Taiwanese government then forbade the propagation, I-Kuan Tao went low-key to avoid trouble in order to continue the propagation. Because of the necessitate of preserving the mission, establishing multiple channels of communication became crucial in order to attain restriction rescind from the government. Eventually, I-Kuan Tao was allowed to register as an official religious group in Taiwan. The religious freedom was a significant milestone in Chinese history.
Around the world, I-Kuan Tao was considered a foreign religion. In order to carry out the mission, follow the regulations and register as an official religious group with the foreign government takes precedence. Most countries have recognized I-Kuan Tao as an official religious organization, only a few still require further communication and collaboration with the governing bodies. I-Kuan Tao originated from Shandong Province, China during the Republican Period. I-Kuan Tao has spread and established across the country. It’s not until the formation of a new regime that it begins to restrict and constrain religious activities. I-Kuan Tao was not exempted by the harsh suppression, even until today after 60 years later. Nowadays I-Kuan Tao continues to develop and expand its mission in Taiwan and all over the world. Chinese from mainland China who migrated overseas could also enjoy the benefits of I-Kuan Tao accomplishment. As I-Kuan Tao was founded in China but growing and flourishing in Taiwan and other parts of the world, in order to regain acceptance by mainland China and to rebound the spirit of people across the strait, Zhang Peicheng’s experience in Tao affairs, in both inheritance and innovation aspects, could be regarded as one of the important references to organization.